عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Undoubtedly Achamenids, as the greatest empire of ancient periods that tried to preserve its internal security and defend its frontiers, needed the help of their appointed governors who were usually elected from among Achaemenid families. Besoos, who was one of Achaemenids, was appointed as a governor on east (Bacteria). Besoos dismissed and killed Darius III and claimed himself as the emperor instead When Alexander attacked the empire. But his kingdom did not last for a long time due to his excessive reliance upon military forces, mistreatment to his friends and subordinates, and misuse of his strategic position that led to economic, social, military and political instabilities. So he was arrested and killed near Damghan by the order of Alexander. Depending on research sources, this paper is going to survey the mutations of late Achaemenid era concentrating on Besoos and his role to answer the following question: “What factors and incentives brought him to power and eventually made him fall soon?